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She was graduated summa cum laude from St. It was a small, pocket-size document of pages. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics th Edition. The th Edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics print version is available for purchase at www. Since they are one of the most important on-page SEO elements you should make your title tags between 20 and 70 characters including spaces - pixels. Get this from a library! CRC handbook of chemistry and physics : a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. Skip to main search results. The Handbook continues to be the most accessed and respected scientific reference in the science, technical, and medical communities.
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Used, cover a bit worn but otherwise in very good condition, I used this textbook for 1st year physics in a BSc. This bibliography may seem long about items , but it has a great many omissions. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. Chapter 4: 4. Celebrating the th anniversary of the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, this 94th edition is an update of a classic reference, mirroring the growth and.
Note in particular that the IPCC reports have by far the most complete bibliography for recent scientific work.
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Learn about Mr. The World Health Organization estimates that f. Sanitation facility access : This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country. Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit VIP latrine; pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet.
Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank. Major infectious diseases : This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years.
The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. Obesity - adult prevalence rate : This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters. Children under the age of 5 years underweight : This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.
Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. Education expenditures : This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.
Literacy : This entry includes a definition of literacy and UNESCO's percentage estimates for populations aged 15 years and over, including total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy.
Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education : School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.
Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit. Unemployment, youth ages : This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year. Government :: South Africa.
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Country name : This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example : conventional long form Italian Republic , conventional short form Italy , local long form Repubblica Italiana , local short form Italia , former Kingdom of Italy , as well as the abbreviation.
Also see the Terminology note. Government type : This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in whic.
Capital : This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST. Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. Administrative divisions : This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.
Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. Independence : For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.
For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. National holiday : This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. Freedom Day, 27 April The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.
Legal system : This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law ; common law including United State law ; customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law including Islamic law.
An addition. Citizenship : This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: citizenship by birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Jus soli, regardless of the citizenship of parents. Suffrage : This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.
Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a. Legislative branch : This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.
The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Judicial branch : This entry includes three subfields. The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court s , the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j.
Political parties and leaders : This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted. International organization participation : This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. Diplomatic representation in the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou. FAX:  Diplomatic representation from the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Box , Pretoria FAX:  12 Flag description : This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. National symbol s : A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.
Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. National anthem : A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. Economy :: South Africa. Economy - overview : This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.
It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. GDP purchasing power parity : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted.
This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measur. GDP official exchange rate : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate : This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. Gross national saving : Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.
The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative. GDP - composition, by end use : This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.
GDP - composition, by sector of origin : This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry.
Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod. Agriculture - products : This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.
Industries : This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. Labor force : This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation : This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.
Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. Unemployment rate : This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs.
Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line : National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Household income or consumption by percentage share : Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.
Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.
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The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index : This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.
The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. Budget : This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues : This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.
Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.http://1zoo.kh.ua/includes/2019-12-01/kifob-sayt-vstrech-i.php
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Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt : This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
Fiscal year : This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices : This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. Central bank discount rate : This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds.
Commercial bank prime lending rate : This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. Stock of narrow money : This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money : This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit : This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information. Market value of publicly traded shares : This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated.
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It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange. Current account balance : This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.
Exports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. Exports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. China 9. Exports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.
Imports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. China Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified.
This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Debt - external : This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.
Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Exchange rates : This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat.
The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. Energy :: South Africa.